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Full text of "Graphic design for non-profit organizations"

>ter Laundy and Masaimo Vignelli 



Published by AIGA 
The American Inat' 



This publication was supported by the 
Graphic Arts National Endowment for the Arts, 
Design Arts Program. 



for Non-Profit 
Organizations 



Peter Laundy and Massimo Vignelli Published by AIGA This publication was supported by the 

The American Institute of Graphic Arts National Endowment for the Arts, 

Design Arts Program. 



Graphic Design 
for Non-Profit 
Organizations 



© 1980 

The American Institute of Graphic Arts 

Prepared by The American Institute of 
Graphic Arts 
1059 Third Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 10021 

Concept and design direction: 
Massimo Vignelli 
Design and text; Peter Laundy 
Production; Mark Wieboldt 

Typography; Typographic Images, Inc., 

New York, N.Y. 

Paper; Champion Kromekote 

IS Cover/. 010 

Champion Chalice Opaque Vellum/80 lb. 



CONTENTS 



This guide is divided into two parts. 
"Basic Guidelines" discusses use of 
graphic components available to the 
designer. "Two Prototypic 
Organizations" illustrates how these 
guidelines can be applied to a broad 
range of communications by two very 
different non-profit organizations. 



Basic 
Guidelines 



FORMATS 


6 


GRIDS 


8 


FULL SIZE GRID 


10 


TYPEFACES 


12 


LAYOUT GUIDELINES 


14 


LOGOTYPES AND SYMBOLS 


18 


SEALS AND CRESTS 


19 


COLOR 


19 


RULES 


19 



IWo Prototypic 
Organizations 



CITY HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND STATE CENTRAL UNIVERSITY 



21 



IDENTITY ELEMENTS 


22 


STATIONERY 


24 


FORMS 


26 


PERSONNEL DIRECTORIES 


27 


CALENDARS AND NEWSLETTERS 


28 


INVITATIONS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS 


30 


PROGRAMS 


31 


POSTERS 


32 


BROCHURES 


36 


INTERNAL PUBLICATIONS 


38 


BOOKS AND CATALOGUES 


40 


SIGNS AND EXHIBITIONS 


44 



Basic 
Guidelines 



INTRODUCTION 



The publication of this volume was 
prompted by a seminar on communication 
and design for non-profit institutions 
which was organized by the AIGA in 
1976. At that time, it became apparent 
that a great amount of effort and 
talent had been applied to the design 
programs of a broad spectrum of 
institutions, but that an even greater 
amount of waste resulted from a lack of 
design coordination and consistency. 
I suggested that the AIGA publish a 
manual to help these institutions 
improve the efficiency and economy of 
the process of communication. 

The main purpose of this manual is not 
to generate sameness or fads, but to 
provide tools to develop individual 
programs to fit individual situations. 
It is also intended to support the 
efforts of designers dealing with 
management to illustrate the necessity 
of investing in a coordinated graphic 
design program. 



I am grateful to the Design Arts 
Program of the National Endowment for 
the Arts for their support of this 
project from its inceptiont to Caroline 
Hightower, Executive Director of the 
AIGA, for her continuous efforts to 
publish this guide; and especially to 
Peter Laundy, whose insightful 
collaboration has made it possible for 
this project to come to fruition. 

I am pleased that this volume adds to 
AIGA's continued efforts to help 
improve the quality of design in our 
environment. 

Massimo Vignelli 



An organization's image is extremely 
important. It is the sum of the 
impressions made on the public in a 
variety of ways. An art gallery, for 
example, will be judged on such 
elements as the quality of its 
collection, the care with which shows 
are hung and catalogues are presented, 
the character of the exhibition spaces 
and overall physical environment, and 
the demeanor of the museum staff. Of 
course, the collection is all-important 
and everything else is secondary, but 
these secondary concerns can either 
reinforce or detract from the overall 
impression. 

Printed communications are supporting 
items that are relatively easy to 
upgrade. They are necessary ongoing 
costs that might as easily be done well 
as poorly, and are also relatively 
important as primary contacts with the 
public . 



Consistency and appropriateness are 
two yardsticks by which communications 
should be judged. 

Consistency has many advantages, the 
primary one being a strong visual 
identity. By appearing "in uniform," 
an organization's printed matter 
visibly becomes part of a team that 
stands out from the crowd. If a 
letterhead, brochure, and newsletter 
are consistent, they reinforce each 
other. They add up to a whole, rather 
than remaining isolated and lost as 
opportunities to communicate an 
appropriate image , as well as an 
organization's impression of efficiency 
and c are . 

Consistency also avoids unnecessary 
customization; certain attributes of 
all communications are established. 
They need not be rethought for every 
communication, and time and money are 
saved. A designer, working within 
guidelines established to maintain 
consistency, is free to focus on the 
most important part of design: making 
each communication right for its task. 
This search for what the communication 
should be is a search for 
appropriateness, the second yardstick 
by which communications should be 
judged. 



The combination of a search for both 
consistency and appropriateness results 
in a meaningful diversity of printed 
items. Without consistency, 
meaningless changes camouflage those 
that are purposeful. Just as a writer 
should not change tense or person 
arbitrarily, so, too, the designer 
should not arbitrarily change such 
things as typeface, type size, color, 
or spatial organization. Such changes 
should only grow out of the needs of 
each communication. Consistency avoids 
arbitrary changes, allowing the 
meaningful cues to stand out in clear 
relief. 

The first part of this guide discusses 
the means available to achieve 
consistency. The second part gives 
examples of consistent graphic 
standards as appropriately applied to a 
variety of items for two prototypic 
organizations. 



FORMATS Shown below are format sizes suggested Always consult a printer as early as 

for use on printed communications. possible when deciding on a format to 

This wide range of possibilities can be sure he has the presses and can 

meet every need. All can be printed acquire the paper to print it 

with minimum paper waste on the American economically. Since paper deliveries 

standard 25" x 38" sheet. Most fit are often slow, allow your printer as 

standard 9" x 12" and #11 business much time as possible to order, 
envelopes. The exceptions are indicated 
below with an asterisk (*). 



3-3A X 5-1/2 X 8-1/2* 11 X 8-1/2 
8-1/2 



11 X 17 



Weight is an important factor in the 
design of a piece to be mailed. Have 
paper supplier or printer make up a 
blank "dummy" to the exact size and 
number of pages contemplated, to make 
sure it isn't too heavy. 



European paper sizes are entirely 
different from the American ones. With 
the United States conversion to the 
metric system, these sizes may become 
increasingly available. 



5-1/2 X 11* 



-1/2 X 11 



11 X 11* 



8-1/2 X 22 



11 X 22» 



17 X 22 



GRIDS 



The grid is the most important tool 
that can be used by the layout designer. 
It is an invisible structure that 
provides a disciplined and consistent 
look while increasing production 
efficiency and maintaining the 
flexibility needed to solve a wide 
range of layout problems. 



Shown below is the same grid applied to 
every suggested format. Its basic unit 
is the 25" square subdivided into three 
horizontal modules. The square and the 
3:2 proportion rectangle thereby 
created are the formats, respectively, 
of 2i and 35nun. cameras. The 
repetition of the modules over the 
format allows photographs shot with 
either of these popular cameras to be 
reproduced at a variety of scales 
without cropping. THIS GUIDE AND THE 
PROTOTYPE LAYOUTS IT CONTAINS WERE 
BASED ON THIS GRID. Other grids would 
also be effective. We have selected 
this system to demonstrate why they are 
useful . 



35 mm 



2-1/4 















































3-3A X 
8-1/2 



5-1/2 X 8-1/2 



11 X 8-1/2 



11 X 17 



m 



A grid achieves a disciplined look with 
a minimum of restrictions. 
Nevertheless, the designer will, at 
times, feel constrained by the grid. 
Occasional unusual layout problems will 
be difficult to handle and the designer 
must do his best. The more talented he 
is, the better he will succeed. 



If on a particular commission, however, 
the grid seems in some way 
inappropriate, the designer should be 
encouraged to articulate the problem 
and modify the grid. For example, the 
grid below would not work well for 85 
X 11 sheets to be 3-hole punched, since 
a large margin on the punched side of 
the page would be desirable. 



Considerable efficiencies are realized 
with the use of a predetermined grid. 
The designer is not facing a blank 
page; some decisions have already been 
made for him. Text can be set, for 
example, only in three possible widths: 
one, two, or three 2i" wide columns. 
Also, borders and gutters have already 
been established. Not only is design 
time saved, but typesetting is 
simplified, both of which increase 
efficiency. 



5-1/2 X 11 



8-1/2 X 11 



11 X 11 

























































-1/2 X 22 



11 X 22 



17 X 22 



TYPEFACES 



The selection of a typeface to be used 
whenever typesetting is involved is 
another tool to achieve visual 
consistency. 

All the typefaces shown below have 
established themselves as classics 
through years of use. They come in 
roman and italic in at least two 
weights, regular and bold, and are 
commonly available throughout the 
country in photo and hot metal type. 
Some are also available in transfer 
type. 



The selection of one typeface, in 
addition to providing visual 
consistency, affords considerable 
economy. Designers need not spend time 
deciding which typeface to use and 
typesetting jobs can be gathered and 
set on one machine without change of 
font. 





Bodoni 


ABCDEFGHUKL Vr\ OPQRSTUVWXYZ 

abcdefghij Idmnopqrstuvwxy z 
1234567890 


Century Expanded 


ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 

1234567890 


Garamond No. 3 


ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 
1234567890 


Times Roman 


ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 
1234567890 



Helvetica 



ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 

1234567890 



Typewriter 



ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 
1234567890 



m 



If typesetting is too expensive in 
general or for one specific project, 
typewriter type can be effectively 
substituted. The quality of typewriter 
typefaces varies enormously. An example 
of a high-quality face is IBM Selectric 
Element; Large Elite '72. Where photo 
reproduction is involved, as in all 
printing, the importance of an even 
impression is increased. Copy should, 
therefore, be produced on an electric 
typewriter. Reduced 25^, it becomes 
comparable in size to normal text types 
and achieves a more "typeset" appearance. 



Typewriters now coming on the market 
with computerized editing capabilities 
may prove economical for such 
applications. Also, different weights 
of typewriter type may become available 
on type balls, eliminating one of its 
disadvantages. 

Unlike the other, more traditional 
typefaces shown below, Helvetica is a 
"sans serif" typeface; it does not have 
thin finishing lines, called serifs, at 
the ends of letterstrokes . Sans serif 
typefaces are appropriate for technical 
texts or for organizations that want a 
contemporary look. 



The typefaces shown are 
of those that could sen 
They are the most commo 
however, and represent 
of typeface that has be 
appropriate for both te 
(headings, titles, etc 
typeface other than one 
chosen, it is highly re 
it be a face that has s 
time. A recently drawn 
quickly and should, the 
avoided. 



only a portion 
sibly be used, 
nly available , 
every category 
en proven 
xt and display 
) . Should a 

shown here be 
commended that 
tood the test of 

face may date 
refore, be 



Bodoni Book 
Bodoni Book Italic 



Bodoni 
Bodoni Italic 



Bodoni Bold 
Bodoni Bold Italic 



Century Expanded Century Bold 

Century Expanded Italic Century Bold Italic 



Garamond No. 3 
GaramondNo. 3 Italic 



Garamond No. 3 Bold 
GaramondNo. 3 
Bold Italic 



Times Roman 
Times Roman Italic 



Times Roman Bold 
Times Roman Bold Italic 



Helvetica Light 
Helvetica Light Italic 

Helvetica 
Helvetica Italic 



Helvetica Medium Helvetica Bold 

Helvetica Medium Italic Helvetica Bold Italic 



Typewriter 



LAYOUT GUIDELINES 



TYPE ALIGNMENT 



PROPER RAG 



A grid organizes columns of type through 
the alignments of left and right edges. 
Centered typography is, therefore, not 
recommended. For most applications, a 
ragged right setting is best because it 
has the advantage of uniform wordspacing; 
shorter lines are not lengthened by 
adding space between words. Justified 
settings can be used to achieve a more 
tightly packed appearance, often 
appropriate for newspapers, newsletters 
and magazines, although erratic word- 
spacing results. 



If type is set ragged right, care shoulc 
be taken to achieve an evenness where 
no shapes are formed along the ragged 
edge. Hyphenation should be avoided so 
that a greater disparity among line 
lengths is created, thereby improving 
evenness and seeming randomness of the 
rag. 



RECOMMENDED 



Typography is closely allied to the fine arts, 
always reflected the taste or feeling of their time 
of the early Italian types has perhaps never 
and the like is true of the Renaissance 
which they were based — and of many other 
of an in that same wonderful time. Note, too, 
the French manuscnpts and types. 

In spite of the increasing interest einthehisto 
and the attention paid in many quarters to 
famous typographers, a knowledge of stand 
the rank and file of printers is still greatly lac 
average printer of to-day, type is type, printing 
it is all about alike; and he concerns hims 



Typography is closely allied to the fine arts, 

always reflected the taste or feeling of 

of the early Italian types has perhaps never 

and the like is true of the Renaissance 

which they were based — and of many other 

of art in that same wonderful time. 

the French manuscripts and types of a slightly 

the manuscripts and the types of the 

In spite of the increasing interest in the history 

and the attention paid in many quarters to 

famous typographers, a knowledge of 

the rank and file of printers is still greatly 

average printer of to-day. 



NOT RECOMMENDED 



Typography is closely allied to the fine arts, an 

reflected the taste or feeling of their 

the early Italian types has perhaps never 

the like is true of the Renaissance 

were based — and of many 

art in that same wonderful time. Note, too, 

French manuscripts and types of a 

and the types 

of the increasing interest in 



Typography is closely allied to the fine arts, 

always reflected the taste or feeling of the 

of the early Italian types has perhaps 

and the like is true of the Renais 

which they were based — and of 

of art in thai same wonderful time. 

the French manuscripts and types of a slightly 

the manuscripts and the types of the Italian 

In spite of the.increasing interest in the 

and the attention paid in many 

famous typographers, a knowledge 

the rank and file of printers is still great 

average printer of to-day, type is type, printing 

It IS all about alike; and he concerns. 



na 



LINESPACING 



PARAGRAPHING 



QUOTATIONS 



Establish a consistent linespacing for 
all communications as one element of an 
established style and to facilitate 
design and typesetting efficiency. 
Typesetting with no leading or 1 point 
of leading is recommended. One 
practical advantage to tight linespacing 
is that more type will fit into a given 
area. Another is that skipped lines 
can be used to clearly organize units 
of type, such as paragraphs. If 
linespacing is excessive, skipped lines 
will not stand out as clearly. 



Because of the importance of an aligned 
appearance along column edges, 
paragraphs can be indicated by a 
skipped line withotrt indentation. If a 
text consists of many short paragraphs 
so that skipped lines take up too much 
room, paragraphs can be indicated by an 
indentation without skipping a line. 
The disadvantage is that the consistent 
indentation point takes away from the 
perceived crispness of the left edge of 
a column of type. There is no need to 
both skip a line and indent. 



A common way to treat quotations is to 
set them in italics. This is a clear 
signal that needs no reinforcement; 
indentation is unnecessary, wastes 
space, and works against the simpler 
look of a consistently maintained 
column edge. When using quotation 
marks, it is a nice refinement to 
"hang" the opening quote out into the 
gutter so that the first letter of the 
quotation aligns with the column edge. 



Typography is closely allied to the fine arts, 
always reflected the taste or feeling of their 
of the early Italian types has perhaps never 
and the like is true of the Renaissance 
which they were based — and of many other 
of art in that same wonderful time. Note, too, 
the French manuscripts. 

In spite of the increasing interest in the history 
and the attention paid in many quarters to 
famous typographers, a knowledge of 
the rank and file of printers is still greatly 
average printer of to-day, type is type, printing 
it is all about alike. 



Typography is closely allied to the fine arts, 
always reflected the taste or feeling of their 
of the early Italian types has perhaps never 
and the like is true of the Renaissance 
which they were based — and of many other 
of art in that same wonderful time. Note, too, 
the French manuscripts. 

In spite of the increasing interest in the history 
and the attention paid in many quarters to 
famous typographers, a knowledge of stand 
the rank and file of printers. 



Typography is closely allied to the fine arts, 
always reflected the taste or feeling of their 
of the early Italian types has perhaps never 
and the like is true of the Renaissance 
which they were based. 

In spite of the increasing interest in the 
and the attention paid in many quarters to 
famous typographers, a knowledge of stand 
the rank and file of printers 



Typography is closely alleed to the fine arts, 
always reflected the taste or feeling of their 
of the early Italian types has perhaps never 
and the like is true of the Renaissance 
which they were based — and of many other 
of art in that same wonderful time. Note, too, 
the French manuscripts and types of a slight 
the manuscripts and the types: 

Typography is closely allied to the fine art 
have always reflected the taste or feeling of 
to the fine arts, and types 

or 

Typography is closely allied to the fine arts, 
always reflected the taste or feeling of their 
of the early Italian types has perhaps never 
and the like is true of the Renaissance 
which they were based 

"In spite of the increasing interest in the history 
and the attention paid in many quarters to 
famous typographers. " 



Typography is closely allied to the fine arts, 
of the early Italian types has perhaps never 
which they were based — and of many other 
the French manuscripts and types of a slightly 
In spite of the increasing interest in the 
famous typographers, a knowledge of 
average printer of to-day, type is type. 

In spite of the increasing interest in the history 
famous typographers, a knowledge of stand 
average printer of to-day. 



Typography is closely allied to the fine arts, 
always reflected the taste or feeling of their 
of the early Italian types has perhaps never 
and the like is true of the Renaissance 
which they were based — and of many other 
of art in that same wonderful time. Note, too, 
the French manuscnpts. 

In spite of the increasing interest in the 
and the attention paid in many quarters to 
famous typographers, a knowledge of stand 
the rank and file of printers is still greatly 
average printer of to-day, type is type, print 
it is all about alike. 



Typography is closely allied to the fine arts, 
always reflected the taste or feeling of their 
of the early Italian types has perhaps never 
and the like is true of the Renaissance 
which they were based 

Typography is closely allied to the fine 
have always reflected the taste or feeling 
allied to the fine arts. 



HIGHLIGHTING AND NUMBERING 



SUBHEADINGS 



LETTERSPACING OF DISPLAY TYPE 



Points highlighted with a typographer's 
"bullet" (a dot) or enumerated can also 
be handled so the crispness of the 
column edge is maintained. Bullets can 
be "outdented" and numbers or letters 
can be either outdented or placed in 
the line above the entry. 



As with quotations, the use of one 
clear signal, rather than two or more, 
is recommended. So, for example, make 
a subheading bold (one signal), not 
bold, linespaced, and a different size 
(three signals). If one signal does 
the job, there's no need to use more 
and the risk of adding clutter is 
minimized. 



Letterspacing will appear excessive if 
text type of normal letterspacing is 
enlarged to display sizes. As type 
increases in size, space between letteri 
must be decreased to maintain the 
appearance of normal letterspacing. 



1 



* Typography is closely allied to the fine arts, 
always reflected the taste or feeling of their 
of the early Italian types. 

•Renaissance and the like is true of the 
which they were based — and of many other 
of art in that same wonderful time. Note, too, 
the French manuscripts. 

In spite of the increasing interest in the history 
and the attention paid in many quarters to 
famous typographers, 
iThe rank and file of printers is still greatly 
average printer of to-day, type is type, printing 
it is all about alike. 

1 

Typography is closely allied to the fine arts, 

always reflected the taste or feeling of their 

of the early Italian types . 

2 

In spite of the increasing interest in the history 

and the attention paid in many quarters to 

famous typographers. 



Typography 

Typography is closely allied to the fine arts, 
always reflected the taste or feeling of their 
of the early Italian types has perhaps never 
and the like is true of the Renaissance. 

Italian Renaissance 

French manuscripts and types of a slightly 
the manuscripts and the types of the Italian 
In spite of the increasing interest in the history 
and the attention paid in many quarters 
famous typographers, a knowledge of 
the rank and file of printers is still greatly 
average printer of to-day, type is type, print 
it is all about alike. 



Normal 
Letterspacing 



• Typography is closely allied to the fine arts, 
always reflected the taste or feeling of their 

of the early Italian types. 

• Renaissance and the like is true of the 
which they were based — and of many other 
of art in that same wonderful time. 



1 In spite of the increasing interest in the 
and the attention paid in many quarters 
famous typographers, a knowledge. 

2 To the rank and file of printers is still 
average printer of to-day, type is type, print 
it IS all about alike. 



Typography 



Typography is closely allied to the fine arts, 
always reflected the taste or feeling of their 
of the early Italian types has perhaps never 
and the like is true of the Renaissance 
which they were based — and of many other 
of art in that same wonderful time. 



Renaissance 

In spite of the increasing interest in the history 
and the attention paid in many quarters to 
famous typographers, a knowledge of 
the rank and file of printers is still greatly 
average printer of to-day, type is type, print 
it IS all about alike. 



TigM 
Letterspacing 

Excessive 
Letterspacing 



IS 



[ LINESPACING OF DISPLAY TYPE 



DISTINCTLY CONTRASTING TYPE WEIGHTS 



DISTINCTLY CONTRASTING TYPE SIZES 



Tight linespacing is recommended so 
that skipped lines can be used to make 
clearly visible groupings. If line- 
spacing is excessive, skipped lines 
will not stand out as clearly. Display 
type should be set without leading. 



To be safe one should limit to two the 
number of type weights used. In fact, 
in many situations, more than two are 
difficult for the eye to distinguish. 
This is especially true for light type 
printed on a dark background, and both 
typesetters and printers can further 
confuse the issue by heavying or 
lightening a given type weight through 
exposure or the amount of ink run on 
press. Make sure the two weights 
chosen are dramatically different from 
each other. 



The use of a maximum of three distinctly 
different typefaces on a communication 
is a good rule of thumb. Besides making 
the typesetter's job easier, it displays 
decisive and clearly drawn priorities, 
reflecting well on the organization and 
making the task of reading easier. 



Normal 
Linespacing 



TWo 

Weights 
of Type 



Large 



iVIedium 



Small 



Excessive 
Linespacing 



Three 

Weights 

of Type 



Large 

Medium Large 



IMedium 

Medium Small 

Small 



LOGOTYPES 



SYMBOLS 



An organization's name is its most 
important and most ubiquitous 
identification element, necessary on 
practically all communications. One 
can take advantage of the opportunity 
to increase the name's identity by 
always presenting it in the same 
typeface. Such a consistently treated 
name is called a logotype. 

The most common formula for the 
creation of a logotype is to 
custom-draw the component letters, 
hoping to create a unique and 
compelling word-form. This 
customization can be expensive and 
dangerous - expensive because logotypes 
require a lot of design and execution 
time, and dangerous because the 
temptation to simplify can lead to 
mannered, difficult-to-read logotypes. 



A less expensive and safer solution is 
to choose an existing typeface, such as 
those shown on pages 12-13. 

The classic nature of the typefaces 
ensures that a logotype will have 
connotations appropriate to a cultural 
institution, and their availability in 
text and display sizes allows greater 
consistency with supporting typography 
than is possible with a custom-designed 
logotype. 

If you decide you need a custom-drawn 
logotype, hire a reputable design firm 
which will report to the person who has 
final authority to accept or reject. 
Instruct the firm to explain why the 
symbol is of practical value and to 
show you how it would be applied to 
various communications. 



LOGOl^f 



Symbols are different from logotypes in 
that they do not spell out the 
organization's name. They are abstract 
and generally more compact than 
logotypes. If well known, they are 
good communicators because of the bold 
impact possible with compactness. 

Symbols, however, because they are 
abstract are much harder than logotypes 
for the public to learn. They are also 
more difficult to design than logotypes 
and, therefore, often more expensive. 
If an organization uses both logotype 
and symbol, less exposure for each 
results. Should you decide to use one, 
however, heed the advice given in 
relation to logotype design: hire 
professionals, make them justify their 
recommendations and show examples of 
the implementation of the logotype. 





lEI 



M 



SEALS AND CRESTS 



COLOR 



RULES 



Seals and crests are generally 
different than symbols in that they are 
much more detailed. They have an 
inherent historical quality and are, 
therefore, very appropriate for many 
non-profit organizations. If your 
organization has a seal or crest, it 
can be used effectively in many 
situations, especially on pieces such 
as diplomas and awards, where a sense 
of ceremony is appropriate. Think 
twice before deciding to modernize a 
seal or crest through eliminating 
detail or sharpening edges, as its 
character may be diminished in the 
process. 



Color can help to build a visual 
identity. A color, for example, can be 
specified for use with a logotype, 
increasing the consistency of the 
logotype's appearance. An organization 
with an easily associated color (i.e. 
a botanical garden with green) should 
strongly consider this option. 

Another possibility is the use of color 
to code a set of communications. 
Within a university department, for 
example, a specific color for forms, 
signage, brochures, etcetera, could be 
established. Layout of many 
departments' communications could be 
standardized, with color providing the 
necessary departmental distinctiveness. 
Consistency is maintained without the 
loss of sensible and helpful 
differentiation. 



Horizontal lines (called rules) can 
also help to build a visual identity. 
When used in a consistent way, rules 
become part of a distinctive and 
organized-looking visual style that 
also happens to be very functional. 
Type and images grouped into horizontal 
bands of information separated by rules 
is a simple and effective format 
strategy. When used with large amounts 
of text, heavy rules can add a 
contrasting boldness that helps 
alleviate the bland texture of a page 
of unrelieved type. 




IWo Prototypic 
Organizations 



Hil 



City 

Historical 

Society 




CITY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



No seal or symbol had established 
itself over the years as standing for 
the Historical Society and it was 
decided that a new symbol was not 
advisable. It would take money to be 
designed and a period of time before it 
became recognized without the 
accompanying "City Historical Society." 



Instead, a typeface (Century Bold) and 
a consistent arrangement (stacked, 
flush left) on a square field were 
chosen to compose the logotype. The 
square field was suggested by the 
highly visible on-site plaques used by 
the Historical Society to designate 
important buildings and other landmarks, 
The typeface, Century Bold, an American 
face designed in I894, had the 
appropriate national and historical 



STATE CENTRAL UNIVERSITY 



State Central University has a seal 
that dates from its origin which can be 
used whenever desired. Especially 
appropriate on official documents, such 
as diplomas, awards and legal contracts, 
it can also be used on communications 
where a sense of history is appropriate. 



The combination of the historical seal 
with a logotype set in the modern sans 
serif face, Helvetica Black, accurately 
reflects the dual nature of the 
University: a reservoir of history and 
culture, as well as a contemporary 
experimental research center. 



City 

Historical 

Society 



State Central University 




133 



connotations. A rich, dark red was 
chosen as the Historical Society color. 
Warm, relatively bright, and 
appropriately reminiscent of brick, it 
will be used as the logotype color to 
increase association with the Society. 
The combination of typeface, color, 
stacked arrangement, and surrounding 
box makes a distinctive logotype 
without incurring the expense of 
custom-drawn letterforms. 



Differentiation within display type is 
often necessary to appropriately 
emphasize one piece of information over 
another. It can be achieved in a 
number of ways. The use of type of the 
same size, but with a different color 
or tint, has been chosen to be used by 
the Historical Society whenever 
possible. The aesthetically pleasing 
quality of having two colors can be 
achieved inexpensively with one-color 
printing by use of tint screens. The 
beautifully conceived letters, with 



their inherent historical quality, can 
become important graphic elements on 
all Society communications. 

Display type is consistently stacked in 
narrow columns in a style consistent 
with the stacked logotype. To 
accommodate limited budgets, typewriter 
type - often reduced by 2% - is the 
supporting text type. 



Horizontal line 
elements that c 
format, provide 
graphic style . 
"State Central 
appears within 
distinctiveness 
relating to the 
divided, often 
into horizontal 
bands. 



s (rules) are useful 
an be used to divide a 
emphasis , and create a 
The Helvetica Black 
University" always 
a band, adding to the 
of the logotype and 
format below. It is 
by thin horizontal lines, 
picture and information 



A university is a complex organization 
with many divisions, many of which need 
separate identification. Where 
desirable, a department or division 
name can be linked with the university 
logotype, as shown below. The logotype 
thereby retains its autonomy through 
its unique position within the band, 
yet can be easily combined with more 
specific division identification. 



Helvetica Regular and Helvetica Black 
are the supporting display and text 
typefaces. 



City 

Historical 

Society 



Contrasting 
Colors 
of Stacked 
Display Type 




Department Name (if any) 




Formats are divided into 
horizontal information bands 



STATIO^fERY 



Business cards, letterheads, envelopes, 
and other stationery items should look 
as much alike as possible to increase 
their combined impact. Layouts should 
be devised so that they will work on 
many different items with minimal 
changes, as demonstrated here. 



"City Historical Society" is dropped 
out of a red square with all other type 
appearing in ^ey 9-point Century 
Expanded to differentiate it from and 
make it subordinate to the black type- 
written message. Reduced typewriter 
type could also have been used. 



Layouts of State Central University's 
stationery items are similar to those 
of City Historical Society, but color 
is used differently. On the business 
card, letterhead and envelope, the bold 
top band is printed in grey with the 
seal (on the letterhead) and all 9-point 
Helvetica type in the school color, 
blue. The understated use of blue gives 
a dignified, reserved appearance and 
clearly differentiates these pieces 
from bright, color-coded internal 
stationery items. 



The infirmary memorandum, for example, i 
is printed in one color, a bright "red ': 
cross" red. Color coding should be used i, 
only on internal communications to I 
facilitate handling. External j 
communications would use blue whenever i 
possible to build recognition of the 
school color. Be careful about choosingi 
light colors, especially light blue, as 
many copy machines cannot reproduce their 



3 XJm Mrtac or (jrUia^sn 



uid tot uw raUorlof ■*■! Mrf bi 



c i tw. j^ yu.. 




7'M''»ff-jM«!^t,-l__, 



All type (including the typewritten 
message) conforms to the grid. The 
asymmetrical appesirance and wide left 
margin are consistent with the style 
generated by the use of the grid and 
have some practical advantages. The 
typist's job is simplified with the 
elimination of indentations. The wide 
margin is handy for jotting notes and 
the limited line length for typing 
improves legibility; long lines of 
single-spaced typewriter type are 
difficult to read. 



The top of the typed letter body can be 
aligned with the list of officers and 
directors in the left margin, assuring 
that the letter body begins on the 
second panel of the folded letterhead, 
leaving the top panel for addresses and 
the Historical Society logotype. 



FORMS 



Shovm below, forms for both City 
Historical Society and State Central 
University have been divided into a 
titling zone and a data entry zone. 
Also, consistent line weights have been 
established: 2-point-wide rules to add 
emphasis or mark divisions and i-point- 
wide rules to mark secondary divisions 
and guide writing or typing. 

Forms are usually printed in one color. 
Black should be avoided, if possible, 
because it is the color most often used 
for data entry; entered information will 



stand out and be easier to read if the 
form is printed in a different color. 
Grey is a good choice because it recedes 

The purchase order has been printed in 
Historical Society red. The logotype 
appears in the upper left corner, 
consistent with stationery, and the 
name of the form is set in 18- point 
Century Bold. Lines end on the grid; 
they do not "bleed" off the page. All 
Historical Society forms should be 
designed as similarly as possible. 



State Central University application 
forms have been color-coded to simplify 
handling for the admissions department. 
The undergraduate admissions form is 
printed in State Central blue and the 
medical history in "red cross" red, 
both of which are filled out by the 
prospective student. All such forms 
have not only been designed to look 
consistent, but they have also been 
written in a consistent manner to be as 
clear as possible. Poorly organized 



forms can be frustrating to fill out 
and leave the applicant with a j 
diminished impression of an ] 

organization. 

The grid has been modified to facilitate 
data entry. Two-pica deep slots 
designed for double -spaced computer or 
typewriter data entry avoid constant 
typewriter realignment and provide 
ample space for handwritten entries. 



Purchase 
Order 



I 



Application for 
Admission 



Student Medical 
History 



iPERSONNEL DIRECTORIES 



An outline of a box 
Historical Society 
an alternate way of 
logotype. Interior 
reduced typewriter 
Bold characters as 
headings. Contrast 
and-white 36-point 
type conforms to th 
standards. 



dropped out of an 
red background shows 
displaying this 
spreads are of 
type with Century 
alphabetical section 
ing stacked black- 
Century Bold display 
e established graphic 



The State Central University Directory 
is a large volume with faculty, 
administration and campus organizations 
in a number of listings. For easy 
reference, the contents are listed on 
the cover, which is printed with a 
bright-yellow background in order to be 
spotted easily on a crowded desk or 
bookshelf. The book is a carefully 



designed tool that will be used 
constantly, as well as being consistent 
graphically with other University 
communications . 





University 
Directory 



CALENDARS AND NEWSLETTERS 



The Historical Society Calendar of 
Events and its Newsletter fold down to 
5i" X 11" and are self -mailers. The 
unfolded 11" x 11" square format is 
distinctive and relates to the square 
logotype. All text type is reduced 
typewriter type and all display type is 
Century Bold, 



The Calendar can be printed consistentlj , 
in black or red, or in seasonal colors, ^ 
so that each new Calendar can be j 
distinguished from its predecessor by j 
color. All events are listed on one ] 
side so that the Calendar can be posted. 



State Central University produces a 
monthly Calendar of Events that is 
enclosed in its Newsletter, as well as 
distributed separately to University 
bulletin boards. The layout most 
clearly differentiates the days of the 
week, appropriate since academic 
schedules vary significantly from day 
to day but not from week to week. 



In the Newsletter, horizontal bands of 
white space one-grid unit high run 
above articles and serve as titling 
bands. Headlines are set in only two 
cleaxly different type sizes. 



Summer 
Calendar of 
Events 












































September 
Calendar 


















16 ^_ " 

23 ■"" 

30 .-~ 


















ma 



If desirable, the Calendar can be 
redesigned to be inserted into the 
Newsletter and mailed with it. 



Summer 
Newsletter 






September 
Bulletin 



Alumnus Donates 
Funds for Campus 



Football Tbam Unbeaten 
and Hungry for CtuunplonsNp 





INVITATIONS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS 



The City Historical Society 
announcement folds at the top rather 
than the side. Not only does the 
horizontal photo fit better in the 
horizontal format, but the fold at the 
top reinforces the impression that this 
is an announcement, not a small 
brochure. It fits perfectly into the 
standard Historical Society business 
envelope . 



Note that the combination of the 
stacked display type and the image on 
the front of the announcement 
communicate "Historical Society" even 
before one opens it and sees the logo 
inside . 



Invitations often contain a number of 
separate pieces; an invitation, a form 
to be filled out and returned, and an 
envelope and enclosed return envelope. 
All items should be coordinated to 
create a distinctive package. Use ink 
and paper color, as well as layout, for 
this purpose. 



In the example below, the invitation 
cover and inside, as well as the form 
to be returned, are all coordinated by 
similar use of the grid. A picture 
found in a book of 19th-century printers 
marks serves as illustration. A public 
library is an inexpensive source of 
wonderful images created by skilled 
artists and craftsmen over many 
centuries. 



-hitecture fJ^1BL0J»^ "liTli^V 



The City's 

Cast-" 

Architecture 

A I 
Sun 





PROGRAMS 



The cover photograph of the Art Deco 
Building Tour program is printed 
"full-bleed." (It "bleeds off" all 
four edges of the page.) This is the 
most prominent way to display a 
photograph or illustration. Not only 
is it reproduced as large as possible, 
but it also has no surrounding border 
that competes for the eye's attention, 
especially one in a strongly 
contrasting color. Printing with a 
"bleed" requires that the piece be 
trimmed down to size after printing, 
since printing presses cannot print up 
to the edge of a sheet of paper. 



Note that the designer has chosen not 
to show a whole building, but rather to 
close in on a detail. To increase the 
impact of a photograph, try to "crop 
in" (reduce the area to be reproduced), 
showing only what is necessary. 



Programs for a series of events can be 
imprinted at the beginning of the 
season with information that remains 
constant. The cover of the orchestra 
program notes is printed at the 
beginning of the season and program 
notes are printed, copied or 
mimeographed on the opposite side of 
the sheet before each concert. The 
expense of printing the cover is 
incurred only once per season, at a 
relatively low cost, since printing is 
more economical in larger quantities. 




The nub of whole 



Norc often than r 




POSTERS 



Flexible poster formats can be devised 
to handle a variety of needs. Shown 
below are thin, vertical, one -color 
posters for the Historical Society. 
One poster uses a photograph, the other 
only type. Silhouetted photographs or 
photographs of objects shot on a white 
background are effective. They present 
objects in a straightforward manner, 
eliminating potentially distracting 
backgrounds. 



Also shown is a less vertical, two-color 
approach that could be used in a poster 
series that always has illustrative 
material. The logotype and image frame 
could be pre -printed in large quantities 
in red. Type and image specific to an 
event could be imprinted in black on 
the desired number of posters. Two- 
color posters are thereby printed at a 
cost not significantly greater than 
one-color posters. 



Black is used as a background on the 
craft poster , providing a more dramatic 
effect than obtainable with white , but 
with the sajne advantage of eliminating 
background distractions. It is more 
difficult to print than the poster 
above it, however, because greater and 
more even ink coverage is required. 



Type can be used illustratively, as 
shown in the Bach poster , where the 
decorative qualities of the German black 
letter typeface are displayed in a large 
scale. 

Recruitment posters, shown on the right, 
follow a strict organization into which 
both illustrations and photographs can 
be plugged. The sun images were found 
in a book. 





1 II II 1 






1 II II 1 








1 II II 1 






1 II II 1 































s 



American 
Furniture 
From the 
Huntington 
Collection 




Join us on 
Saturday, 
July 2 from 
11am to 
4pin for our 
Annual House 
Tbur. 

It willbe^n 
and end at the 
Historical 
Society 
Building, 1625 
Main St. 

The price is 
$2 for members 
and $5 for 
non-members. 

Reservations 
can be made by 
calling 593-1416. 



1 II 
1 II 1 


1 




1 _ .-»^:'^... ^ 


Organ (■.i,[i«iuh*<«'<> tnmivinf**"' 

comxiiMih-ck ii Mw»i *"««n lo c(yii'M>»"n>a and 



Structural 

Ironwork 

A Photographic 

Survey 





Summer Language 
Institute 

June 16— Augusts 



Engineering at 
State Central 



Historical 
Soiietv 



Colonial Silver 
The Work of 
Early American 
Silversmiths 



Jould be necessary, I oontriv 
E made alittle book, i which 
page with red ink, so as ot 
the geginlng of each line wit 
and in its proper column, I 
upon examination to have been 
on the first week, my great 
temperance, leaving the other 
evening the faults fo the day. 
marked T, clear of 




State Central University 



.■^*^' 




State Central University 
is committed to the 
education of students, 
not in isolation, but in a 
situation that permits 
them to take themselves 
seriously: above all, 
as persons. 



Mary Patterson 

Dean of the Undergraduate College 




BROCHURES 



A series of brochures can be given a 
strong identity through the use of 
similar cover layouts. Here, the 
consistent placement and size of type 
and logotype over full -page images 
achieve a strong identity. 



Six-panel brochures are economical and 
useful. Their overall size, 8i" x 11", 
is the most stamdard printing size in 
the country. 



The three brochure covers below 
demonstrate that diversity can be 
achieved without the loss of identity. 
Type with photograph, type with the 
University seal, and type used alone 
provide strong individual brochure 
identities, while consistent use of the 
band, of the format, and of type style 
and size provides ample identity for 
the University. 



The table of contents is printed 
cover of the Parking Regulations 
saving space and increasing acce 
the information inside. 



on the 
ss to 



Welcome 
to the 
Society 




Gilcrest 
Mansion 




M e morial 

Art 

Museum 



Your Gift to 
State Central 
does many jobs! 



University 
Parking System 



Regulations 




Hm-otiw ■ Snr j«(y M«mher 



Gilcrest | 
Mansion I 



Gilcmt Manaion 





TbTDvcn Uh iJilrt«aii, (ad, u XI 






University 
Parking System 



Regulations 



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INTERNAL PUBLICATIONS 



Type amd image areas are separated to 
avoid the difficulties that often arise 
when attempting to print type over 
image. The square image area relates 
to the squgire logotype. The area 
surrounding the image is printed in 
Historical Society red, with type and 
image in black and white. The date is 
prominently displayed below the name of 
the publication and follows the display 
type convention established for the 
Historical Society. 



Inside layouts make primary use of the 
second two columns on each page. 
Titles, footnotes, and any other 
material to be isolated from the main 
text or emphasized by surrounding white 
space is put in the first column. 
Featured articles begin with large 
Century Bold titles. Secondary 
articles begin with a clearly smaller 
Century Bold headline. These are the 
only two sizes used. 



The cover layout of Alumni Monthly also 
separates text and image. At the top 
is the University identification band, 
followed by a masthead band, image band 
and featured article band. The cover 
can be printed in one, two or four 
colors, depending on the image material 
and the importance of the issue. The 
variability makes each month's cover 
more distinctive, so that the date need 
not be so prominently displayed as on 
the Historical Society's publication. 



Inside spreads are also organized into 
horizontal bands of information. 




Alumni Monthly 



Man, 01 th* lypi 




Preservation Quarterly 




Preservation News 



WK F- 



'""" Architectural Splendor 
on the East Side 








BOOKS AND CATALOGUES 



As with other communications, book 
covers can be composed of type alone or 
with photographs or illustrations. If 
a catalogue and poster are needed for 
an exhibit, it makes sense to make them 
as related as possible, as shown here 
in the Colonial Silver catalogue. 



Spreads should be laid out as simply as 
possible. Avoid clutter j it's better 
to show the more important things well 
than it is to cram everything in. The 
black-on-white/v*iite -on-black treatment 
of the bicycle book is a simple way to 
add to a spread's impact. 



A series of catalogues represented by 
the "Undergraduate Life" and "Social 
Sciences" covers have an increased dose 
of identity. The combination of 
photography, identical format division, 
and identical typographic treatment 
establishes them as components of a 
series of catalogues, as well as 
identifying them as coming from State 
Central. This furthers the impression 
of organization and efficiency on an 
important audience: potential students 
and their families. 



The cover of the "Crafts" catalogue, 
while not identical to the exhibition 
poster, repeats an important component, 
the square black image area, creating 
an elegant oversized 11" x 11" format. 



I '.331 



the Shape 
of the City 



(oloniaJ Silver 
Thf Work lit 
Karlv Amcntan 
SilverimithM 



Morton 
Bernstein 





Undergraduate 
Life at 
State Central 







From thr 
VcliHipi'dctotht' 
Tt'n Sptfd 
A Hislnn of 
thi'liioilt' 



j^ ^ ^ 



^y.mjmm 



mm;m 





1 1 II 1 


1 1 1 


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1 1 1 1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 1 






1 1 


1 


1 




City 

Historical 

Society 



Cast-iron 

Architectural 

Ornament 




BUILDING IDENTIFICATION SIGNS 



This sign offers the opportunity to 
present the logotype in the sajne 
elegant and durable materials used for 
other Society plaques. It clearly 
establishes the link between the 
plaques and the square logotype used on 
printed communications. 



Individual freestanding letters can 
also be fabricated for outdoor signs. 
When made a perceivable thickness, as 
shovm below, they become three- 
dimensional objects, not merely flat 
letters applied on a surface. This 
often enhances a sign's character and 
sense of permanence. 



nn 



City 

Historical 

Society 



' I ' I ' 



n 



± 



Ll 




I III 



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1 r 



r: 



rrz 



, ' , ' , ' ■ I , ' t 



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INDOOR SIGNS 



Negative photostats slipped into clear 
plexiglass holders provide a 
professional looking, yet inexpensive 
and changeable method of room 
identification. If photostats are 
unavailable, press type applied to 
paper of £uiy color can be substituted. 



As on the exhibition signs for the 
Historical Society, directly applied 
die-cut vinyl, silkscreened or press- 
typed letters can be used for indoor 
signs. A 3/^" capital letter height is 
a clearly legible, yet discreet 
typesize for such signs. 




Building 

Preservation 

Dept. 



I 



B. Thompson 



I 



213 Chemistry 





EXHIBITIONS 



Captions are also set in Century Bold. 
Applied directly to the wall, die-cut 
vinyl adhesive, silkscreened or press- 
typed letters provide the cleanest, 
simplest looking solution. Directly 
applied borderless captions have no 
"objectness" as they would if they 
appeared on plaques, reducing the 
clutter of perceived pieces on the wall 
by one -half, and subconsciously 
suggesting to the viewer that he look 
at the object first, captions second. 
When objects are displayed behind glassy 
letters can be applied to the glass 
case. With eyes focused on the object, 



the viewer is not distracted by the 
caption. Focused on the caption (which 
is on a different focal plane), he can 
easily read the caption no matter what 
is behind it. 

Establish a standard typesize for 
captions, especially if using die-cut 
or press-typed letters. One set of 
dies can be prepared, or a single size 
of press type can be purchased that 
can be used for all exhibitions. 



OUTDOOR SIGNS 



Established international traffic 
symbol signs recognized throughout the 
world can be used. Avoid spelled-out 
longer messages, such as "Parking," as 
they take a much larger sign to be 
reproduced at the same scale as the 
international traffic sign counterpart 
(in this case, a "P" on a disc). Look 
at U.S. Department of Transportation 
document "Symbol Signs - 2" 
(DOT-OS-605IO) for further information 
about officially recognized symbol 



signs, or contact the AIGA (American 
Institute of Graphic Arts) for 
reproduction proofs. 

Horizontal information bands are useful 
when used on campus signposts. A map, 
coordinated with such signposts, would 
be a help to visitors. 



Rembrandt Peale (1778-1860) 
Portrait of Jane White Galaher 

Circa 1825 
Oil on Canvas 
20 X 24 inches 



Rembrandt Pealc (177S-lSWh 
Portrait uf.lane W hite (ialaher 

C"iri-a 1W2.) 
Oil on Can\as 
20 X 24 ini-hes 





STOP 



State Central University 



<r 



Music 
Administration 



Library 
Humanities 



-> 



Dormitories 
Visual Arts 



Natural Sciences 
Social Sciences 



Main Hall 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY PLAQUES 



These plaques are the most important 
and visible Society communications. 
They were the basis for the design of 
the logotype: Century Bold on a square 
field. Plaques, then, should be squaire 
and contain Century Bold type. In 
addition, they should be made of a 
durable and elegant material such as 
bronze that, over many years, will add 
distinction to both the landmark it 
identifies and the Historical Society 
it represents. 



FLOOR DIRECTORIES 



Photostats slipped into clear 
plexiglass holders can be used for such 
changeable indoor signs. Again, 
horizontal bands separate categories of 
information. 







1 1 1 1 1 1 ' 1 ' 1 ' 


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1 1 1 1 1 1 




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1 1 1 1 Ill 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 ! 1 ! 1 1 i ! 1 I 1 1 I 



Natural Science 
Building 


4 


Faculty Offices 
Auditorium 
Biology Labs 


3 


Library 
Dean's Office 
Chemistry Lab 


2 


Physics Lecture Hall 
Classrooms 


1 


Mathematics Dept. 
Planetarium 



11 



I 



Printed by Sanders Printing, 
New York NY 

Flexico® Adhesive Bound by 
Sendor Bindery, New York NY 



1 \. ■:>■ ■•; ^'1